How Plesiosaurs Ruled the Ocean using their Flippers

Plesiosaurs ruled the oceans during the time of the dinosaurs with specially adapted flippers that enabled them to swim faster and with greater efficiency than any other animal. Luke Muscutt studied the 4-flipper arrangement by conducting experiments at the University of Southampton to investigate exactly how it all worked…

With thanks to the UK Fluids Network and the Journal of Fluid Mechanics for supporting this video.

Size matters when it comes to speed

How fast should an animal be able to move? And why are the biggest animals, which pack more muscle, not the fastest? That’s what Yale scientist Walter Jetz was wondering, so he and his colleagues looked at hundreds of animal species and have come up with a new theory that successfully puts a speed limit on most species…

  • There is a theoretical maximum speed that is expected to increase with body size,  however, in order to actually get to any speed you need to first accelerate, and larger animals take much longer to do so – much like a truck accelerating to 60mph compared to a motorbike or car.
  • Large bodied animals simply do not have sufficient energy to reach their theoretical maximum speed.
  • The general distribution is a ‘hump-shape’ as shown in the plots below. Maximum speed increases with size until we reach a critical mass beyond which the maximum speed reached starts to decrease.

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  • Data for over 450 species were included in the study, across land, air and water.
  • The study provides insight into evolutionary trade-offs for different species as they evolve to increase their chances of survival.

You can listen to the full interview with the Naked Scientists here.

Image copyright Dawn Key

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