Looking inside your heart

One of the tools available to doctors to see the heart in action is the echocardiogram. This uses ultrasound waves to image the heart as it beats, so the cardiologist can tell whether it’s contracting correctly and that the heart muscle is a healthy shape. I volunteered to be a guinea pig…

Clare – I’m Clare Ward-Jones; I work for Phillips Healthcare and my role is a cardiac ultrasound applications specialist. We’ve got a machine the ETHIC and that is the supreme ultrasound machine for cardiology. We can do a 2D scan on you, we can also do 3D images so we can get a 3D model of the heart.

  • The machine is the same as that used for a scan on a pregnant woman and relies on ultrasound beams which are sent out from the end of the probe and bounce back when they hit structures in the body.
  • Patients must lie on their left-hand side to bring their heart closer to the front of the chest meaning the ultrasound has to travel a shorter distance and therefore produces a clearer image on screen.
  • Electrodes are also applied to the patient to monitor the heart rate during the procedure – mine measured 87 which lies between the normal rate of 60-100 beats per minute.
  • Jelly is applied to the skin to remove any air between the probe and the skin which ultrasound cannot travel through.

Rick – My name is Rick Steeds; I’m a consultant cardiologist. I’m particularly interested in cardiovascular imaging and I’m the current President of the British Society of Echocardiography.

  • Echo sounds are very good at showing the structure of the heart; how strong the muscle is; whether the valves work; whether they leak or whether they’re narrowed, and whether there’s damage to the heart, for example, from a heart attack.
  • The images of my heart show two of the four chambers and the valves between them opening and closing.

You can listen to the full interview for the Naked Scientists here.

Naked mole rats could help stroke victims

Stroke occurs every 2 seconds worldwide and is the second largest cause of death. When a stroke happens, the most important tissues of our body, the brain and heart, are starved of oxygen causing cell damage. To improve therapies for stroke patients we need to understand how the human body copes without oxygen and one researcher at the University of Cambridge thinks he may have found the answer in the form of a small rodent called a naked mole rat. Dr Ewan St John Smith and his colleagues were able to identify a new mechanism used by the naked mole rats to maintain an energy supply to the cells in their body without using oxygen. He told me more about these fascinating creatures…

  • Naked mole rats are the same size as a mouse, are the only cold-blooded mammal that we are currently aware of and they live for over 30 years despite the maths suggesting they should only live between 3-5 years.
  • They live underground in large colonies of up to 300 and so have adapted to be able to function normally in a low-oxygen environment.
  • A low-level oxygen environment, such as that experienced by the brain when a human suffers a stroke, will kill a mouse, but the naked mole rats are able to survive for 20 minutes without experiencing any side effects.
  • The heart rate of the naked mole rats drops to around 20-25% of normal levels during the oxygen deprivation and the question faced by the researchers was where does the energy come from, as it can’t be via the usual method of aerobic respiration with glucose.
  • Their findings suggest that the brain and heart cells of the naked mole rats are able to undergo respiration using fructose in their blood, rather than glucose from their cells, and while this also has a limited supply, it does provide a back-up plan to survive the oxygen depletion.
  • With this new understanding of how nerve cells function, Ewan and his colleagues hope to be able to develop a similar response in human cells to act as a preventative strategy to stop brain damage during a stroke.

You can listen to the full interview with the Naked Scientists here.

Photo credit: Jedimentat44 on Flickr

 

WordPress.com.

Up ↑